then -1947 India -Refugees,1–2 million people died during the partition

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The wounds have never healed': living through the terror of ...
The Guardian
'The wounds have never healed':
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Related imageSikh refugees from Lahore waiting for their family elders in 1947 | 71th Independence Day: Memorable pics from 1947 that narrate the story of India’s Independence | Photos | India.com PhotoGallery
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Sikh refugees waiting for land allotments in India after India’s independence in 1947.

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How many people died during the partition of India? - Quora

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Dec 20, 2014 - In early 1947, around 100,000 Muslim Meos were forced to flee their homes from Alwar and Bharatpur and an estimated 30,000 Meos are said to have been massacred. UNHCR estimated that around 14 million people were displaced during the partition. The 1951 Census of Pakistan identified the number of displaced ...

How the Partition of India happened – and why its effects are still felt ...

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Aug 10, 2017 - Partition” – the division of British India into the two separate states of India and Pakistan on August 14-15, 1947 – was the “last-minute” mechanism by which the British were able to secure agreement .... In August 1946, the Great Calcutta Killing left some 4,000 people dead and a further 100,000 homeless.
Mar 13, 2015 - Sept. 19, 1947: Muslim refugees sit on the roof of an overcrowded coach railway train near New Delhi in trying to flee India. Millions of Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan. Partition marked a massive upheaval across the subcontinent. Hindus living for generations in what was to become Pakistan had to ...

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Aug 15, 2017 - Mallika Ahluwalia is a co-founder of the first museum to commemorate the partition of India and Pakistan in 1947. The museum, in Amritsar, India, recounts not only the tragedy of partition, where more than a million people died, but also the positive stories where Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims helped each ...

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Aug 14, 2017 - 70 years later, survivors recall the horrors of India-Pakistan partition. By Vidhi ... Indian soldiers walk through the debris of a building in Amritsar during unrest after the partition of India and Pakistan in August 1947. (Agence ... If you emphasize the death and violence, that tarnishes the achievement,” he said.

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Aug 14, 2016 - Writer and publisher Urvashi Butalia's The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India is based on the stories she recorded of those who lived through the nightmare of 1947. In this interview, she digs deep into these stories to explain why men killed their own families, the trauma of women who ...

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Mar 3, 2011 - What issues were left unresolved at the time of India's partition in 1947, and how have they continued to plague both India and Pakistan since ... As many as one million civilians died in the accompanying riots and local-level fighting, particularly in the western region of Punjab which was cut in two by the ...
Aug 15, 2017 - At midnight on August 14 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of independent India, gave a famous speech which hailed the country's .... As India prepared to mark 70 years of independence, families who witnessed the death and destruction during partition recalled the tales of horror. Brothers ...

 It is estimated that around 1–2 million people died during the partition of British India. The most violent clauses were centred around Punjab where the Muslim population of East Punjab was forcibly expelled and the Hindu/Sikh population in West Punjab.

UNHCR estimated that around 14 million people were displaced during the partition. The 1951 Census of Pakistan identified the number of displaced persons in Pakistan at 7,226,600, presumably all Muslims who had entered Pakistan from India. Similarly, the 1951 Census of India enumerated 7,295,870 displaced persons, apparently all Hindus and Sikhs who had moved to India from Pakistan. The two numbers add up to 14.5 million.
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BRITAIN THOUGHT INDIA WILL BE DISMEMBERED AND WEAKENED BY PARTITION 

BRITISH PLAN WAS TO HAVE SEPARATE TREATY WITH EACH MAHARAJA (TOTAL MORE THAN 300 MAHARAJAS) AND CONTINUE RULING INDIA

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Chamber of Princes - Wikipedia

CONGRESS LEADER SHIP DECIDED TO AMALGAMATE ALL SMALL PRINCELY STATES INTO ONE COUNTRY UNDER INDIA

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 AND SARDAR VALLABHAI PATEL MET MOST MAHARAJAS FOR THISImage result for SARDAR PATEL MET MAHARAJAS 1947 TO FORM INDIA
Image result for SARDAR PATEL MET MAHARAJAS 1947 TO FORM INDIA    SARDAR PATEL WITH RULER OF HYDERABAD
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Building A Nation | Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
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States Ministry formed under Sardar Pate


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India at 70: These five states were reluctant to join Independent India

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The midnight of August 15, 1947, is perhaps noted as the most significant in the pages of Indian history. In the words of then Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru, India awoke to life and freedom. But the freedom was hard earned dream come true for the nationalist leaders of India and then stitching together hundreds of territorial pieces into one whole was an aspiration much harder to realise and as of August 15, they lay yet unfulfilled.
When the Britishers left India in 1947, they did not leave the country the way it is today. 70 years ago, with more than 500 princely states scattered across the boundary, the idea of united India was difficult to conceive. And to make matter worse, the British did not decide anything about the princely states and they were free to join either India or Pakistan and could even remain independent!

The princely states, both pampered and exploited by the British, maintained a position of semi-autonomy under the colonisers and were the toughest challenge facing free India. Once the withdrawal of the British were announced, the issue of the princely states had to be settled for the new government that would be in power. The freedom led some of the rulers and princes into believing that they could rule their independent states. To aid in the process a new state’s department was set up with Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel as its head and V. P. Menon as the secretary.
Together they, under the guidance of Lord Mountbatten, were given the responsibility to coax, cajole and convince the princes to accede to the Indian union. Bikaner, Baroda and few other states from Rajasthan were the first ones to join the union. Alternatively, there were several other states that were adamant to not shake hands with India. Some of them thought this to be the best moment to acquire independent statehood, while there were others who wanted to become a part of Pakistan. Here are the cases of five states that opposed the idea of joining India.
Travancore


The Southern Indian maritime states was one of the princely states to refuse accession to the Indian union and question the Congress’ leadership of the nation. After the British left India, the dewan, Sir CP Ramaswami Aiyar, made it clear that Travancore would become an independent country, free from any outside rule, as it was before 1795 when it first signed a treaty with the East India Company. This desire was also welcomed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. But after a series of negotiations, Travancore gave in to the demand of joining India but what preceded it was certainly unfortunate.
An assassination attempt was made on Sir CP Ramaswami Aiyar by a social activist of Kerala and had to be admitted to hospital. While the Dewan stuck to his position till as late as July 1947, he changed his mind soon after he survived an assassination attempt by a member of the Kerala Socialist Party. On July 30, 1947, Travancore joined India.
Bhopal
Another state that wished to declare Independence was Bhopal, which had a Muslim Nawab, Hamidullah Khan, ruling over a majority Hindu population. A close friend of Muslim League, the Nawab was staunchly opposed to Congress rule. The Nawab of Bhopal, wrote a very emotional letter to his childhood friend Lord Mountbatten when the latter advised him to accede to India. Agitations broke out under his rule and there was increasing public pressure on him to merge the state of Bhopal with India. By July 1947, the Prince became aware of a large number of princes who had acceded to India and decided to follow suit.
Jodhpur
The Rajput princely state was a strange case of tilting towards Pakistan despite having a Hindu king and a large Hindu population. While the prince, Maharaja Hanvant Singh, was strong to join India, he somehow got the idea that it might be more beneficial for him to join Pakistan on account of the fact that his state shares the border with the soon to be born country. Supposedly, a meeting took place between the Maharaja and Jinnah. Jinnah is said to have handed a blank sheet and a fountain pen to Maharaja saying, “You can fill in all your conditions”. But it was after Vallabhbhai Patel’s intervention, who offered him sufficient benefits and explained the problem of joining a Muslim state, the Maharaja came around and agreed to join India.
Hyderabad
The case of Hyderabad was by far the most significant and complicated challenge among the princely states. Though it was legal for princely states to join either India or Pakistan or remain independent, geographically it made little sense for Hyderabad. Lying in the Deccan plateau, the state covered a large portion of the centre of India. During the independence of the country, Nizam Mir Usman Ali was presiding over a largely Hindu population. When the British decided to leave, the Nizam was very clear on his demand for an independent state and consequently becoming a member of the British Commonwealth of nations. Lord Mountbatten, however, made it very clear that the Crown would not agree to Hyderabad becoming member of the British Commonwealth, except through either of the two new dominions.
Meanwhile, the tussle for Hyderabad grew stronger, violence and demonstrations across the state became a regular feature. The Nizam also drew support from Jinnah who pledged to defend the oldest Muslim dynasty in India. However, for Vallabhbhai Patel, an independent Hyderabad was equivalent to having cancer in the belly in India. When Lord Mountbatten resigned in June 1948, Congress send troops to Hyderabad which came to be known as ‘Operation polo. In an armed encounter which lasted for about four days, the Indian Army gained full control of the state. And later in an attempt to reward Nizam for his submission, he was made the governor of Hyderabad.
Junagadh

Apart from Hyderabad, there was one more state that had not acceded to the Indian union by August 15, 1947, the Gujarati state of Junagadh. It was the most important among the group of Kathiawar states. Earlier, it announced its decision to join Pakistan. Vallabhbhai Patel, who is also from Gujarat, was particularly enraged to hear this. Here too, the Nawab, Muhammad Mahabat Khanji III ruled over a large Hindu population.
A provisional government of Junagarh was set up in Bombay, and there were agitations to annul the accession of Junagarh to Pakistan. When the situation worsened, the chief minister of Junagarh wrote to Pakistan for help but seeing no help coming from there, Junagarh had to ask the Indian government to take over the administration. And eventually, on February 20, 1948, a plebiscite was held in the state wherein 91 per cent of the voters chose to join India.

Kishan Ghedia, Sardar - The real "Iron Man" of India!

( Princely states of India during 1934-1947 )

Sardar Patel handled effectively the integration of the princely states with his diplomatic skills and foresightedness. The problem of amalgamating 562 independent states with a democratic self-governing India was difficult and delicate. But it was essential to save India from balkanization, once the Paramountcy of British crown would lapse.He, by his tactics, broke the union of separatist princes. By August 15, 1947 all except Hyderabad, Junagarh and Kashmir acceded to India. He thereafter carried three fold process of assimilation, centralization and unification of states. The states were amalgamated to form a union and that union was merged with the Union of India.

In terms of  size and status, Kashmir and Hyderabad were larger in size than many countries of the world whereas some were just combination of dozen of villages.British created many proposals which allowed them to control many important aspect of Indian princely states like military, succession at a hefty fee without taking any responsibility of welfare  of its people. (Parallels may be drawn to last government where Manmohan  Singh was prime minister while decisions were taken somewhere else.) These states had their own railways, currency and stamps, but as aptly  pointed by one British observer, "The states were sinks of reaction and   incompetence and unrestrained autocratic power sometimes exercised by  vicious and deranged individuals".

( V.P. Menon, Secretary, States Ministry, at the covenant signing ceremony of the Union in April 1948, with the Maharaja of Gwalior (left). It was Mountbatten's skills and Menon's legal resourcefulness which truly accomplished the first phase of the integration of States, that is, the accession to the Union. Photo:THE HINDU archives )

Congress had assigned the  problem of states to the pragmatic administrator Vallabhbhai Patel. He  threw a series of lunch parties, where he urged his princely guests to  help the congress in framing a new constitution of India. And at the  same time, Patel wrote to influential chief ministers of the princely  states urging them to convince their rulers to come to terms with the  party which would now rule India. One of the first princes  to come over to Patel's side was  Maharaja of Bikaner. His dewan was K. M.Pannikar who could see that force of nationalism was irrestible. And if one did not compromise with them, one would be swept away.
 
If you have ever wondered, if its not for British, India would never be united as country. I kid you not, the credit goes to Sardar VallabhBhai Patel and not British. British left the country even before the borders of india and pakistan were marked properly. It was the unsung efforts of this iron man, which shaped the country we currently make home of.
In 1947, the 500 odd princely states, were given option to join either pakistan or india. Majority of them backed with their own armies were adamant in join, because joining means loosing their armies, treasury, and
more importantly power. Nizams of Hyderabad even went to extent of attempting purchase of Goa from portugese to have Sea Access for future Nizam state. Some princely states threatened to join pakistan to get better negotiating terms from India
Though Nehru, openly issued statemtnt that any state not belonging to India or Pakistan will be treated as enemy,
The onerous task of political integration with out spilling blood was given to Mr.Sardar Patel, and his assistant V.P Menon.
Sardar Patel, met all the state heads and their Diwan’s, and it took less than 2 hours to convince most of them
to lose their royal status and annexe their kingdom to become common citizens. It was this speech that convinced all the state heads to give up and made the political integration without blood shed, Otherwise it would have dragged the entire subcontinent into a lengthy civil war.
Sadly, the contents of the speech are not known, if you have any knowledge of this transcript, let me know.